Sikh Gurus > Guru Arjan Dev Ji

Prithia was composing his own religious hymns which he described as compositions of Guru Nanak and his successors. The ignorant people did not have sufficient intelligence to discriminate. Guru Arjan, therefore, felt the need to lay down rules to guide his followers in their daily religious duties. He made plans for the compilation of Adi Granth. For that purpose he chose a secluded spot outside the city which is now called Ramsar. He got a tank excavated there. Tents were erected for the accommodation. Guru Arjan took abode near the tank and dictated hymns to Bhai Gurdas who wrote them down. The verses were arranged according to Rags or musical measures. The hymns of the first Guru came first as Mohalla 1 (read as Mohalla pehla), then those of the second Guru- Mohalla II (read as Mohalla Duja) and so on. After the Bani of the Gurus, came the verses of the Bhagats or the Indian saints. The hymns of the Adi Granth were thus set according to thirty-one Indian Classical Ragas.

A Muslim might never like to read a hymn of a Hindu saint, and by the same token a Hindu might not like to hear the religious verse of a Muslim saint. The Hindus did not allow a saint, born in low caste family, to enter the Hindu temple. This was the religious fanaticism prevailing at that time. Guru Arjan, therefore, created an ocean in which all rivers and rivulets could fall and assume the appearance of the ocean itself. The composition of such an ocean was completed on Bhadon Vadi 1, Sambat 1661 (1604 A.D.) and was called Adi Granth. It was by no means a bible for the Sikhs alone, but it is universal in character. It contained no life story of the Gurus but only the Universal Truth, each and every word of which was dedicated to the Glory of the Almighty God only.

The composition of Adi Granth consisted of the hymns of the first five Gurus, Hindu saints (Brahmans as well as Sudras) and Muslim Sufis. These saints were: Beni , Bhikhan, Dhanna, Farid, Jai Dev, Kabir , Nam Dev, Parmanand, Pipa, Ramanand, Ravidas, Sain, Sadhna, Sur Das and Trilochan. It also contained the hymns of Minstrels (Bhats and Bards). These minstrels were all Brahmans and then became Sikhs of the Guru, they were- Kal, Jalap, Bhika, Sal, Bhal, Nal, Bal, Gyand, Mathura , Kirat and Harbans. It also consisted of Var of Satta and Balwand, Ramkali Sad by Sundar and five Sabads of Mardana, the minstrel of Guru Nanak.

On Bhadon Sudi first, Sambat 1661 (1604 A.D.), Adi Granth was installed in the Hari Mandar and Bhai Buddha was appointed as the first Granthi (priest).

Prithia addressed the Qazis and the Pandits who had enmity towards the Guru on account of his compilation of Adi Granth and he induced them to make a complaint to the Emperor that Guru Arjan had compiled a Granth in which Muslim and Hindu prophets were reviled. Upon this the Emperor sent for the Guru and the Granth. The Guru did not go himself but sent Bhai Buddha and Bhai Gurdas to read to the Emperor from the Granth. Various stanzas (Sabads) were read to him and Emperor Akbar was very much pleased and said, "Except love and devotion to God, I find neither praise nor blame of any one in the Granth. It is a volume worthy of reverence." Guru's slanderers and enemies were stunned. Akbar gave Siropas (dresses of honor) to Bhai Buddha and Bhai Gurdas, and promised to visit the Guru on his way back from Lahore .

As promised Akbar visited the Guru on his return journey to Delhi . He was charmed and fascinated with Guru's saintly bearing. The Emperor partook of the Guru's hospitality and prayed that he be allowed to make contributions to secure spiritual and temporal welfare and happiness. The Guru replied, "The welfare and happiness of monarchs depend on cherishing their subjects and doing justice." The Guru then stated that there was a severe famine in the land and cultivators required His Majesty's consideration. The Emperor remitted the revenue of the Punjab for that year. The Guru's fame and influence had largely increased owing to the respect the Emperor had shown to him. This became a cause of greater agony to Prithia.

During the rein of Guru Arjan, crowds were converted to Sikhism in Punjab and in various other parts of India and even in the neighboring countries. It is said that the hilly Rajas of Kulu, Suket, Haripur and Chamba visited the Guru and became his followers as did the Raja of Mandi. Guru's fame and influence became widely spread.

At that time Chandu Lal was Emperor Akbar's Diwan or financial advisor. He was a Khatri by caste and was originally an inhabitant of Rohela village in Gurdaspur district of Punjab. His official duties necessitated him to reside in Delhi . He had a young daughter of extreme beauty. Her mother, one day, said to her father, "Our daughter is growing to maturity. We should search for a husband for her." Chandu Lal, therefore, sent his family priest and barber in search for a suitable match for his daughter. The priest and the barber searched every city in the Punjab but could not find a satisfactory match. One day again Chandu's wife insisted that they should continue their efforts. So the priest and the barber were again despatched for the purpose. They searched and searched and when they reached Lahore , they heard about the Guru's young son, Har Gobind. They went to Amritsar and found Har Gobind as the most descent match for the young girl. They came back and reported to Chandu accordingly. They gave their a nalysis on the excellence of Har Gobind and the enormous respect that his father was commanding in the city of Amritsar . Chandu was not pleased hearing praises of the Guru, so he asked the priest and the barber, "Do you think him equal to me? Guru's caste is inferior to me. You desire to put the ornamental tile of top storey into a gutter! Where am I, the imperial finance minister; and where is the Guru, though he may be an object of veneration to his followers?"

After the husband and wife had argued the whole night over the matter, it was decided that Sada Kaur (their daughter) should be given in marriage to Har Gobind. The marriage presents were, therefore, dispatched to Amritsar .